6. definite (but often overlooked) sensations of resistance (of habits, of muscles, of thought, of environment); and This period may be called the pre-moral era. Those who violate prescriptive laws are subject to punishment. 190-191. The higher man does not share his duties with others-what is an obligation for him need not be one for another. This “exploitation” is not an evil, but simply a fact of existence, a “primary organic function,” and it is a part of the will to power (see section 230). The Master Morality. The higher individual, on the other hand, shows his appreciation in the presence of such things. Nietzsche conceptualizes himself, as I will show, as both a "free spirit", makes anyone who has read Nietzsche's Zarathustra - even aphoristically, as I tried to do at first - cringe. But it is necessary as a support for life. Other moralities are possible, but the herd morality defends itself by laying claim to the final truth. Cruelty and pain are its basic attributes, and these arise from the imprisonment of the spirit. He finds the English coarse, gloomy, more brutal than the Germans, and declares that "they are no philosophical race", singling out Bacon, Hobbes, Hume and Locke as representing a "debasement and devaluation of the concept 'philosopher' for more than a century" (§252). Philosophers, in a sense, are “actors.” They are also like the beast of burden, the ass. It was first published in 1886. Noble men often appear to be too happy. (Note, however, that what establishes this order is just the degree of ability to bestow without losing oneself in the process-see Thus Spoke Zarathustra; part one, The Bestowing Virtue.) Their standard of value lies in the temperate and the mediocre; particularly, in the happiness of the masses. It can, however, produce the opposite – the powerful man, whenever there is also present an inherited ability of self-mastery. However, Nietzsche also says here that the role of “investigator” is spurned by Dionysos as simply another “mask,” by means of which humans give him a form. 188-189. The new philosopher will not love truth for the sake of pleasure or spiritual enrichment; he will not identify the true with the beautiful or the “good.” Such a view is foolish romanticism. Richard Wagner, himself, reflects this; his work is not nationalistic, and has a strong French influence. The prejudice of opposites (section 2). In their place, he offers the "will to power" as an explanation of all behavior; this ties into his "perspective of life", which he regards as "beyond good and evil", denying a universal morality for all human beings. 275-279. The English philosopher David Hume (1711-1776) had claimed that all propositions which convey information were only probable, but never absolutely certain. 293. not a sufficient guide to their values; there is a question remaining, namely: Man is, after all, extremely complex, and the simplicity of his works is necessarily unfaithful to their origin. 607). He shuns extreme sympathy, involvement in a science, or setting up his own freedom or his own virtue as a fixed pursuit. There are critical imbalances in it that cause much of humanity to suffer. All adaptation, learning, and growth, however, has a center, a core, which does not alter. V. Laszlo, Anchor Books, New York, 1958). Only after a period of intense discipline is he able to “create” – to exhibit that creative flair which is called “freedom.” Where freedom of choice, responsibility, and spiritual creativity are concerned-in short, where morals are concerned, a disciplining with regard to human and social actions is necessary. There is, however, a stronger form of scepticism-a “masculine” scepticism-which is German in character. Comment. Above all, they will attempt to free man from submission to historical accident, which has been the governing factor in his progress so far. The power of will is weakest in France, stronger in Germany and England; it is strongest in Russia. The idea that love should be divorced from egoism is an absurd one, and represents the mistake carried to its extreme. Regarding German music: Beethoven represents the transition of The breakdown of these basically instinctive relations is a sign of the degeneracy introduced by the democratization of Europe. 5. 15. What does the opposite, ignobility, really stand for? It is the same with social and spiritual freedom. His emotions suffer, as a result, and he can neither love nor hate without restraint. Spirituality develops out of its opposite, shallowness, only through the intervention of a long period of self-imposed moral restraint. Since severe discipline is a necessary condition for ability to arrange things freely and creatively (sections 24 and 188), a certain self-restriction (and even group restriction), which is a form of cruelty, is also a part of the pattern of life. In the presence of widespread nihilistic feeling, scepticism is one of the best “sedatives.” The sceptical point of view permits a suspension of judgment, and thereby protects the sceptic from the responsibility of affirming or denying values. The man of science is not to be placed above the philosopher in order of rank. He is careful to estimate his own worth accurately, and to ask of others only this same estimate. In neither case is the religious neurosis destroyed. As far as survival is concerned, the common people have all the advantage; even language works for them. 25-26. 186-187. The significance of this inversion of values is not to be looked for “on the surface” (any more than a term like “freedom” can be understood, in the mouth of another, until his behavior is observed). It was first published in 1886. Between §62 and §186 Nietzsche inserts a collection of mostly single-sentence aphorisms, modelled on French aphorists such as La Rochefoucauld. Finally, it is possible that the structure of a language is reducible to the presence of common valuations, which Nietzsche links, as usual, to physiological needs. As such, it reflects and amplifies many of the chapters of Zarathustra in which society, politics, philosophy, art, and science are held up to the measure of the Superman, and found wanting. The characteristics which he attributes here to Dionysos are of some further interest. 30. Religion has always been connected to "three dangerous dietary prescriptions: solitude, fasting and sexual abstinence" (§47), and has exerted cruelty through demanding sacrifice according to a "ladder" with different rungs of cruelty, which has ultimately caused God himself to be sacrificed (§55). The rise of atheism is not necessarily a sign of religious decline, but of the failure of the theistic interpretation of things. 61-62. Cynics, who criticize humanity from a cool, even-tempered point of view, but who never become free from man themselves, are nevertheless valuable guides, because they represent a certain degree of honesty. For example, number 75, “The degree and nature of a man’s sensuality extends to the highest altitudes of his spirit,” may be readily associated with the thesis in number 50, that the passion for God has an element of sensuality in it. This prejudice regarding the application of the terms “good” and “bad” has its metaphysical correlate (i.e., a related view about the nature of existence) in the view that there exist, in nature, sets of opposites. In it he exposes the deficiencies of those usually called "philosophers" and identifies the qualities of the "new philosophers": imagination, self-assertion, danger, originality, and the "creation of values". This isolation from the concrete case makes it difficult for him to affirm or deny personal values. Nietzsche places his hope in the emergence of the new philosopher. The artist, for example, subjects himself to a complex set of rules, in order to achieve that power over a certain sphere which is his art. 9. At this point, they will attempt to make their leadership seem as if it is a form of obedience; a subordination, for example, to a constitution, or to the will of the people. The instinctive intellectual may hide his intellectuality by means of outward “enthusiasm.” But what he does does not reveal what he is; his solitude itself prevents him from attempting seriously to communicate with the masses. Twelve of these (§§ 84, 85, 86, 114, 115, 127, 131, 139, 144, 145, 147, 148) concern women or the distinction between men and women. In general, philosophers (and societies) have attached a positive value, “good,” to the first members of these pairs, and a negative value, “bad,” to their opposites. From The Times (of London) obituary on him (January 19, 2007) that mentioned his “wit and wisdom” in its title, available at, inequality, economic dislocation, information overload, ﬁnancial instability and many other pressures leading away from serving the common good. A more interesting question is: how is it possible to impose such stringent restrictions upon fundamental human instincts? In this way, “opposites” arise. Certain fundamental beliefs are nothing more than convenient “fictions.” For example, propositions which many philosophers have taken to be necessarily true, such as the “synthetic a priori” propositions that “every event has a cause” and “all colored objects have some spatial extent,” are not objectively founded. 4. The American philosopher William James has expressed this thought in classic form. Beyond Good and Evil was translated from Nietzsche's native German by Walter Kaufman. However, it should be noted that it is not atheism that destroys God, but the death of God that produces atheism. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche is a German philosopher. At the same time, he recognizes his duty to his equals, also as a natural pattern of behavior. An example of this point of view is to be found in Chapter 6 of Language, Truth and Logic, by A. J. Ayer (Dover Publications, New York.) It also differs from Platonism, which rejects the world of the senses as a means to truth, and in this opposition to Platonism, natural philosophy is like a philosophic explanation of things. Any unfettered research into man’s inner life, research which is free from philosophical and moral prejudices, must necessarily be the result of individual effort. It is not easy for the philosopher to achieve a position of prominence. Spirituality is, in fact, the opposite side of a continuum, at the other end of which lies justice as a form of revenge. In social contexts, where other creatures are involved, this self-deception (in 2 above) becomes a deception of others, for the sake of the security which this provides. He offers an entirely psychological explanation of every past philosophy: each has been an "involuntary and unconscious memoir" on the part of its author (§6) and exists to justify his moral prejudices, which he solemnly baptizes as "truths".
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